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Health information of Portuguese population: Knowledge and perceived quality and accessibility of health information sources. Building a Social Science Data Archive. Jesuitism, on the other hand, was defined as a morally relaxed period, which sought to reinstate papal theocracy and popular piety, namely through the diffusion of increasingly elaborate Christian myths.
In the renowned Casino Lectures, held in Lisbon in , Antero de Quental —91 argued that the tercentennial Iberian decadence was threefold moral, political, and economical and identified the Catholic Reformation, and its effective implementation by the Jesuits, as the single most important cause for the moral decadence of Portugal and Spain in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth century.
His main thesis was that they were the leading force behind the Portuguese educational backwardness from the sixteenth century onwards. As the title suggests, it provided an overview of the history of the Society of Jesus, from the conversion of Ignatius of Loyola to the nineteenth-century controversies regarding the so-called illegal restoration. Nineteenth-century anti-Jesuit literature explored a number of different topics, such as their ambition, dishonesty, and secrecy.
However, several accounts paid special attention to the establishment and functioning of their colleges and to the quality of their teaching. Updating the popular accusation of supporting tyrannicide, this report also asserted that the Jesuits claimed that patricide was not a sin if committed in the service of God. In the aftermath of the republican revolution, on October 5, , the interim government imprisoned the Jesuits, closed their colleges, and apprehended their assets books, natural history collections, scientific instruments, etc. By that time, the Portuguese province was constituted by members, and the Jesuits were responsible for the education of more than eight hundred students in continental Portugal and more than three thousand students in India, Africa, Macao, and Timor.
From the early years of the twentieth century, and inspired by the new methods of scientific history, a new historiographical tradition paying attention to the thorough description and analysis of primary sources gradually arose. His works were especially important since they laid the groundwork from which emerged a new generation of Jesuit and non-Jesuit scholars, that gradually moved away from the apologetic and anti-Jesuit historiographical traditions. Francisco Rodrigues S. Throughout his book, Alden deals with the creation, expansion, organization governance, recruitment, and fiscal administration , and vicissitudes of Assistentia Lusitaniae , the first, largest, and most scattered territory under Jesuit administration.
Written with no apologetic or anti-Jesuit agenda, The Making of an Enterprise still represents the most detailed and balanced history of the Portuguese assistancy, from to From the s, historiography of Jesuit missions witnessed a sudden turn, influenced by the massive archival work by Jesuit and non-Jesuit scholars.
McCall, more attention has been usually paid to the overseas missions, especially in Brazil, India, Japan, and China. Nineteenth- and early twentieth-century historiography was deeply influenced by the Pombaline narrative of obscurantism and decadence. The controversies were frequent and historians were either Jesuit hagiographers or anti-Jesuit polemicists. From the turn of the millennium, the history of Portuguese anti-Jesuitism arose as a stimulating topic for scholars with no particular anti-Jesuit or hagiographic agenda. In the history of Jesuit historiography in modern Portugal, the vast majority of studies concern the history of Assistentia Lusitaniae.
5 October 1910 revolution
Despite the historiographical imbalance between the pre-suppression and the restored Society of Jesus, the literature on the latter is gaining momentum. Instead of , one may also consider the universal suppression of the Society of Jesus in as the end date of this period. Anti-Jesuitism has been a pervasive subject in Jesuit studies. The expulsion led to the destruction or scattering of most manuscripts and printed sources pertaining to Assistentia Lusitaniae.
For the sources pertaining to Biblioteca Nacional that concern the expulsion see the catalog: Jorge Couto, ed. Jeffrey D. Its massive circulation fuelled the publication of the brief In specula supremae dignitatis by Benedict XIV r. XVIII , 3 vols. Lisbon: Verbo, —99 ]. Manuel N. Joaquim Abranches, S. Poitiers: H. Oudin, —86 with the title Les prisons du Marquis de Pombal minister de S. Gazeta de Lisboa, , September 12, In the aftermath of the first Napoleonic invasion, in November , the court and the royal family fled to Brazil, where they resided from to With the arrival of the liberal troops, on July 24, , the seventeen French Jesuits working in Coimbra were imprisoned.
They boarded to Genoa on July 7, , due to the intervention of the French ambassador. The Jesuits living in Lisbon, including Delvaux, superior of the Portuguese mission, had been deported to Italy and England in August In that same year, an anti-Jesuit booklet printed in Rio de Janeiro foretold the epilogue of the French mission: F. The Society of Jesus was informally restored in It was officially reinstated as Portuguese mission in , and Francis Xavier Fulconis —80 was its superior.